One of the beauties of using Spelling You See is the ability to move at a child’s individual pace. If a student is taking a little more time to understand a concept, you can simply slow down and offer more practice; if he demonstrates understanding, you can move ahead. Some subject areas, such as math and grammar, are easy to adjust, but some, like spelling, are a little harder. How can you tell if a child has “mastered” spelling and is ready to move on? Specifically, how can you adjust the Spelling You See curriculum to fit your child’s individual pace?
If you read my previous blog post on spelling mastery, you’ll understand that this is a skill that develops over a long period of time, so it isn’t easy to assess after a single lesson or even a single level. However, as your child works through Spelling You See, there will be some clues that your child either needs to slow down or move a little more quickly. This blog post will look at these clues in the different levels and offer suggestions for ways to address them.
In Listen and Write, children learn to associate letters and sounds by writing words with short vowels from dictation. Letter boxes are given to help them with this task. The level moves carefully through the following steps:
• Writing a three-letter word with all letters provided (Lessons 1-3)
• Writing a three-letter word with vowel provided (Lessons 4-5)
• Writing a three-letter word with vowel space shaded (Lessons 6-7)
• Writing three-letter words with no assistance (Lessons 8-15)
• Writing four-letter words with initial blends and diphthongs (Lessons 16-25)
• Writing four-letter words with ending blends and diphthongs (Lessons 26-29)
• Writing four-letter words with no assistance (Lessons 30-31)
• Writing five-letter words with medial vowel shaded (Lessons 32-34)
• Writing five-letter words with no assistance (Lessons 35-36)
Because so many skills are covered at this level, it’s important to stop after each lesson to assess how well your student is doing. Is your student struggling to complete the task, or does he need a lot of assistance? The answer is NOT to make the work sessions longer—10 minutes is the max! Instead, if the student is struggling near the beginning of the book, you should probably put it aside for a month or two and then try again. If he’s further along in the program, you can download additional letter box pages from your online resources and use the words from the General Dictation List for more practice sessions before moving on. Can your student spell nearly every word quickly and without error? You may want to consider skipping the remaining pages in that lesson and moving on to the next. The important thing is to make sure your student feels confident and demonstrates no anxiety before moving on to the next lesson.
The first half of Jack and Jill reviews and solidifies the skills presented in Listen and Write while adding the new skills of reading, copywork, and chunking. Watch your student carefully as she goes through the first few lessons. If you are near the beginning of the book and your child did not complete all of Listen and Write, you may need to go back to that book to build foundational skills. If you did complete Listen and Write previously, you will need to determine the specific skill that is causing difficulty. If it’s copywork, remember to keep the time relaxed and limited to 10 minutes, even if your student can only copy a few words. Remember to celebrate success! If the issue is letter box dictation, you can download additional letter box pages from your online resources and use the words from the General Dictation List for more practice sessions before moving on. Whatever you decide, do NOT make your child’s work sessions longer—10 minutes is the max!
Students who struggle in the second half of the course generally have difficulty transitioning to passage dictation. Again, it’s important to limit these sessions to 10 minutes, celebrating what the child is able to accomplish during that time. Be sure to watch the demonstration video on passage dictation (available in your online resources) to see how Dr. Holinga conducts these sessions. Also, be sure to take time for the No Rule Day activities—they will help keep spelling fun and minimize stress.
On the other hand, if your student can spell nearly every word quickly and without error, you may want to consider skipping the remaining pages in that lesson and move on to the next. Once again, the goal is for the child to feel comfortable and confident as he continues through the level.
As you work through these levels, it is very important that you follow the program as it is designed. Generally students struggle or lose interest simply because well-meaning parents make significant alterations, such as skipping one or more of the core activities, adding in phonics rules, requiring the student to complete each dictation, focusing on errors, or using the book for handwriting instruction. If you have any questions about how the program is meant to be used, please contact a Customer Service representative for assistance.
Given the fact that growth does tend to come in spurts, you will also want to assess your student’s progress at the end of every lesson. Was he able to chunk the passages accurately, without error or assistance? Was the first dictation practically flawless? Then it might be possible to move a little more quickly through the level. Try the A and B pages of the next lesson, and if your student does well, skip the C page. Then try the first dictation without assistance; if the student completes it confidently with few errors, skip the second dictation and move to the next lesson. Once again, use your student’s confidence as a guide in deciding whether you should move more quickly through the level.
Spelling You See is a carefully crafted, research-based program designed to help students learn to spell confidently and accurately. While it is meant to be followed exactly, there is room to adjust the pacing to meet the needs of your individual student. While spelling mastery doesn’t happen overnight, as you continue to use Spelling You See, you will eventually see your child become a clear and confident communicator.
We’ve seen it many times—the quizzical look on a parent’s face when she looks at the Spelling You See program for the first time. Next come the questions, usually prefaced by “If this is a spelling program…”
“Why are there passages to read?”
“Why do I have to read aloud?”
“Why does my child have to write so much?”
I totally understand where the questions are coming from. Language arts instruction is often confusing because of all the subskills involved; reading, spelling, handwriting, composition, grammar. Some parents choose a separate curriculum for each area, and some go with a more integrated approach. After many years of homeschooling experience and professional research, I can say one thing with confidence: while you may choose to use different materials for reading, spelling, grammar, etc., children learn language in an integrated way. They learn words, and the more familiar they are with words, the more successful they will be in all aspects of their language study. To put it another way, “The more deeply and thoroughly a student knows a word, the more likely he or she is to recognize it, define it, and use it appropriately in speech and writing.” (Source)
For this reason, the Spelling You See program is built on five core activities designed to increase your child’s experience with words. This blog post will discuss these activities briefly and explain how each one contributes to spelling success.
5 Core Activities
While reading and spelling are different processes, they are also complementary, working together to build a student’s proficiency with language. In the lowest levels of Spelling You See, students use their knowledge of phonics to write words and then read them back, developing fluidity as they move from one skill to the other. In the other levels of the program, students are given short, interesting passages to read, copy, and write from dictation. These passages provide a meaningful context for the words the student will be learning to spell, showing him how they are used in “real life,” instead of presenting them in isolated lists. In Spelling You See, care is taken to make sure the process of reading does not interfere with the student’s focus on spelling. Passages are deliberately written at lower reading levels, and, even then, parents are strongly encouraged to read new passages aloud to students so that they don’t have worry about figuring out words. While you might be tempted to skip the reading portion of a Spelling You See lesson, it’s important to remember that incorporating this core activity helps build language proficiency.
Listening is another core activity in the Spelling You See program that is often overlooked. For the youngest students in the Phonetic stage of spelling development, much time is spent listening to individual sounds and learning to connect those sounds with letters. In subsequent levels, passages are read aloud so that students hear the correct pronunciations of words and make connections between sounds and letter patterns. Dictation activities in Spelling You See help students practice the skill of transferring sounds that they hear into correctly written words—which is, after all, the fundamental definition of spelling.
It may seem meaningless to have students simply copy words, but there is actually great value in this core activity. A 2006 study by Virginia Berninger found that students who wrote words by hand, as opposed to using a keyboard, showed greater brain activity in the areas associated with reading, writing, and working memory—the areas needed to process words. In addition, the physical act of writing stimulates muscle memory, thereby helping students transfer spelling to long-term memory. It’s important to note that correct letter formation should NOT be emphasized during copywork sessions in Spelling You See; that is the goal of handwriting practice, which should be conducted at another time.
The term chunking refers to a technique unique to Spelling You See in which students mark recurring letter patterns with assigned colors. This core activity, which appears in the second half of Jack and Jill and beyond, teaches students to pay attention to the individual letters that make up a word, which enhances visual memory of the correct spelling. Parents should understand that chunking should never be associated with phonics “rules”; phonics instruction helps students decode (read) words but is generally unhelpful and even confusing when a student is trying to encode (spell) a word.
Dictation is to spelling as a flight simulator is to piloting an aircraft; it’s a controlled way of practicing a skill before launching into real-time, unassisted application. In Spelling You See, the passage the student has been working on all week is read back, one word at a time, and the student writes each word as it is given. During the dictation session, students are given as much assistance as they need; however, in Americana and beyond there is a second dictation, which students are expected to complete independently. As students become more confident spelling words that are familiar to them, their proficiency in spelling gradually increases and becomes incorporated in the writing they do in other subjects and in everyday life.
While each of the five core activities of Spelling You See have value in themselves, when combined they create a powerful mechanism to help students learn to spell correctly. As their skill in spelling improves, their written work communicates ideas more clearly, which in turn increases their confidence. We invite you to explore this exciting program and see what it can do for your student.
There’s a story going around our office that Steve Demme originally wanted to call Math-U-See “Piece of Cake Math.” Whether this is true or not, I think the story reflects one of the foundational principles behind Demme Learning products. We want students to become learners who are confident in their knowledge and abilities. We want them to be able to tackle appropriate learning tasks with success and efficiency. We want them to get to the point that the subject really does become a “piece of cake.” In other words, we want our students to attain mastery.
What exactly do we mean by “mastery” when it comes to learning? Think about something that is a “piece of cake” for you, maybe something like driving a car. How can you tell that you have mastered this skill? First, you don’t need any assistance to perform the task; you don’t need anyone to supervise, and you don’t need to consult a manual. You also don’t need to think through the steps (“turn the key, put the gearshift into reverse…”) but are able to perform the task automatically. Also, if you have mastered the skill of driving one type of vehicle (a sedan, for example), you are generally able to drive another type (minivan, SUV, or even a truck) with little difficulty. While drivers may have differing levels of experience or confidence, we can say they have mastered the skill of driving a car if they meet these criteria.
Now consider this idea of mastery as it relates to spelling. Someone who is a “good speller” doesn’t rely on a dictionary or spell check. Not only is he or she able to retrieve correct spellings automatically, but this person also uses correct spelling in all contexts, whether it be writing a formal report or emailing a friend. There’s probably also something you may notice about good spellers: they tend to be good with language in general. Research has shown that strong spellers are often avid readers with large vocabularies. One set of researchers explained the phenomenon this way: “the more deeply and thoroughly a student knows a word, the more likely he or she is to recognize it, spell it, define it, and use it appropriately in speech and writing.” (Source)
The conclusion that we can draw from this research is that mastery in spelling doesn’t come from memorizing lists of words or phonics rules. Instead, spelling proficiency comes from being exposed to words and interacting with them repeatedly in a variety of ways, which is the instructional approach used in Spelling You See. First, students see words in short, interesting passages so that reading and vocabulary skills can be applied. Next, students practice writing the words in context and analyze word structure through “chunking” activities. The dictation exercises at the end of the week help students develop the skill of retrieving correct spelling from memory. Commonly used words appear over and over again throughout the lessons, enabling the student to develop competence and confidence in their ability to spell them correctly.
So how will you know when a student has achieved spelling mastery? It’s similar to learning to drive a car: mastery doesn’t happen overnight, and it can be demonstrated in a variety of ways. You can see spelling mastery when your child is working in another subject and says, “I know that word! It was in my Spelling You See book!” It happens when your child asks for help less and starts spelling more words correctly in his everyday writing. It happens when your child points out a misspelling on a sign. Some parents have even reported improvement in reading and an increased interest in words in general. Spelling mastery is subtle and takes time to develop, but once you see your child growing in this important skill, you will know that he is further along on the path to becoming a lifelong learner.
Other than helping to keep hands occupied and minds engaged, is there actual value to using “manipulatives” to teach spelling and reading?
Let’s face it – it can be hard to make a language arts curriculum interesting. Sometimes the reading passages can capture a child’s attention, and colorful graphics may help, but the actual work of learning letters, sounds, punctuation rules, parts of speech, spelling patterns, etc., can be downright tedious. It’s no wonder that parents can be drawn to programs that include letter tiles, magnetic letters, or foam letters (especially in pretty colors).
There has been some research that supports using letter tiles or magnetic letters to develop reading skill, especially for students with language-based learning issues. Being able to break a word easily into its component letters can help children with word analysis and decoding. However, it’s important to remember that learning to read and learning to spell are two very different processes. If letter tiles help students with reading, do they also work for spelling?
Actually, researchers have found that the best way to make spelling “stick” is to have the child write the words by hand. More recent studies, using advancing technology to study the brain, have supported these findings.
A 2012 study compared three groups of students: those who traced a letter, those who wrote it freehand, and those who typed it on a computer. Those who wrote the letter by hand showed increased activity in the areas of the brain that are activated by adults as they read and write.
Another researcher found that the brains of students who wrote by hand showed greater activity in the areas associated with reading, writing, and working memory.
It is becoming increasingly evident that writing by hand stimulates important areas of the brain that help students improve language skill, especially in the area of spelling.
Language Arts Manipulatives
All of this makes sense when considering the processes involved in handwriting, as opposed to using letter tiles or magnetic letters. When working with the manipulatives, the student must execute these tasks:
1) Think about the sound being made.
2) Decide which letter needs to be written. (visual memory)
3) Choose the letter from a total group of letters. (visual discrimination)
4) Place the letter in the correct order. (visual sequencing)
Writing by Hand
Note that, with letter tiles and magnetic letters, the hand follows the exact same motion for every letter. This is significantly different from the process of writing by hand:
1) Think about the sound being made.
2) Decide which letter needs to be written. (visual memory)
3) Think about how the letter is formed. (kinesthetic memory)
4) Engage the proper hand motions. (kinesthetic sequencing)
Writing by hand helps students take greater advantage of more areas of the brain, which is why it’s a core component of Spelling You See. We invite you to investigate this unique research-based program that is easy to use and fun for students.
Image source: Munchkin Inc.
You can prepare your preschooler for Math-U-See by providing her with purposeful activity and play in advance.
Perhaps it’s happened in your house. It’s time for Math-U-See, and your older children are getting out their workbooks and manipulatives. In the meantime, your preschooler, drawn to the colorful blocks, asks, “Can I use the blocks, too?” Your child isn’t ready for Primer yet, so you really don’t have anything planned. Is it all right to let your child just play with the blocks, or are there meaningful activities you can do to help your child prepare for Primer?
Quite a bit of research has been done in the area of using manipulatives for math instruction. From this research, there are two important principles that parents using Math-U-See should keep in mind.
First, manipulatives work best when students view them as “tools”, like a ruler or compass, rather than toys.
Second, manipulatives do not teach math in and of themselves; it is only when a student uses them under the guidance of an instructor that he comes to understand their meaning and their use as representations of mathematical concepts. (Source)
Therefore, if you’re going to be using Math-U-See with your current preschooler, it’s probably better for you to guide your child through purposeful activity, helping them get the most out of their play.
So what would this “purposeful activity” look like? If a child isn’t ready for Primer, you don’t want activities that involve actual numbers or counting; instead, you should aim for developing pre-number concepts and familiarity with the blocks as learning tools. The activities you choose can address any of these four areas:
Identifying Block Colors
The association between the color of each block, the length of the block, and the number that the block represents will all be fundamental concepts in the Primer level of Math-U-See. You can begin developing this understanding by completing the following activities (in order of increasing difficulty):
• Play “Simon Says”, giving specific directions using the colors of the blocks (ex., “Put a pink block on your knee”).
• Have your child trace around each block and color the rectangle correctly.
• Give your child a paper with block tracings. Have him use the blocks to determine which color each should be and fill in the rectangle. [Download a free printable for this activity]
• See if your child can color in the block tracings correctly, without using the blocks as a reference.
• Have your child close his eyes. Give him two blocks to feel and tell their colors (ex., pink and brown). Can he guess which block is which just by feeling them?
These activities will help your child become familiar with the block colors before associating them with actual numbers in Primer.
Exploring Relationships Between the Blocks
These activities develop an intuitive sense of number relationships, which will be important when your child uses the blocks in Primer to model concepts such as greater than and less than.
• Use a paper of block tracings. After your child has correctly identified the color of one block, see if she can identify other tracings that are the same size and will be the same color. Have her use the blocks to check her guess.
• Have your child put the blocks in order of length, both forward and backward.
• Put the blocks in order and then play “What’s Missing?” Have your child cover her eyes while you take a block away from the order. Can she tell which color is missing?
• Play “Match Me.” Lay down a block and have your child find groups of blocks that are just as long as the original block. (For added difficulty, lay down two or three blocks end to end and have your child find matching combinations.)
• Play “Cover the Block”. Have your child take a red hundred-block and cover it with smaller blocks. There should be no gaps and no blocks extending over the side. Talk about the different ways that a row can be filled (ex., two light blues, a brown and two greens, etc.).
Once the child learns to associate the blocks with numbers in Primer, he will be able to extend his understanding of patterns to those numbers.
• Put the blocks in order of length. Remove every other block and have your child say the color pattern (ex., dark green, pink, light blue, tan, light green).
• Have your child make other repeating patterns with the blocks (ex., yellow, pink, yellow, pink).
• Play “Copy My Pattern.” Have your child make a pattern, and you copy it with your blocks. Take turns.
Sorting the Blocks
These activities help children learn how to organize information and think logically—both important skills to support mathematical reasoning.
• Simply have your child dump out the blocks and put them back into the right compartments of the plastic tray.
• Ask your child to group the blocks in different ways (long/short blocks, light/dark colors, etc.). Encourage him to come up with his own groupings. Begin with two groups and then move to three, if your child is able.
Note that none of these activities actually have the child count or refer to numbers. Instead, you are using the blocks to develop cognitive skills that lay a foundation for the Math-U-See program. These activities have the added benefit of making math fun, which will build confidence and encourage understanding. Meaningful activities with the Math-U-See integer blocks are a wonderful way to start your preschooler on the path to lifelong learning!
Encouraging our children to “go deep” in math can increase motivation, help them learn how to think and reason, and yes, even make math fun!
“Why do I need to learn this?”
“Math is SO boring!”
“I hate math!”
Have you ever heard any of these from your children (or perhaps even thought them yourself)? Why does math seem to come so easily for some people, while for others it just doesn’t “take”? Research suggests that the depth at which concepts are taught has much to do with a student’s competence, confidence, and general attitude toward math. What does it mean to “go deep” in math?
In the late 1990s, Norman Webb, an educational researcher, proposed the Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model of learning. Webb divided learning tasks into four levels of complexity: recall and reproduction, skills and concepts, strategic thinking, and extended thinking. Let’s take a simple mathematical concept (multiplying by 9) and see how it might appear in all four levels of cognitive depth.
Recall and Reproduction
At this level, a student simply retrieves information from memory. With the multiplication facts for 9, for example, your student should be able to recite them randomly, at any time or place. The problem with rote learning, however, is that it doesn’t offer any context to make it meaningful or interesting. This is why students need to move to deeper levels in math.
Skills and Concepts
Students now apply the facts that they’ve learned to familiar tasks. Most math programs offer simple word problems to challenge students at this level, such as the following:
CDs are on sale for $9 each. How much will it cost to buy 5 of them?
First, the student needs to analyze the situation to determine that multiplication is required; then he must select the correct fact (9 × 5) to find the answer. Now students see a reason for math, but this may not be enough to stimulate interest or develop critical thinking skills.
Related post: Help! I Need to Solve a Word Problem!
At this cognitive level, students use reasoning and planning to tackle a learning task. This sample problem for the 9 facts shows how a student at this level can apply deeper thinking.
The number 3,806,784 is multiplied by 9. In the product, what digit is in the ones place? Explain your answer.
A student at a lower cognitive level would most likely need to perform the actual calculation to arrive at the answer. At this level, however, a student would draw on his factual knowledge (9 × 4 = 36) and deduce that, since 36 has a 6 in the units place, the product of 3,806,784 and 9 will also have a 6 in the units place. In his explanation, the student is required to reason aloud, thus developing important critical thinking skills.
This is the deepest cognitive level and can also be the most fun! Student-designed projects generally fall into this category because they require pulling together multiple ideas and skills into an experiment, survey, model, or investigation. To utilize the multiplication facts for 9, for example, a student might be asked to plan a party for 9 people and present a detailed list of the costs, using newspaper ads or websites to find prices. (For an extra challenge, the student could be given a spending limit.) This task obviously draws on the 9 facts but also incorporates many other skills, both mathematical (adding) and practical (finding the best price).
Looking at these examples, you may be able to see how rich mathematical learning can be. You are probably wondering, though, “What does this mean for me as a parent?” I’d like to suggest three possible applications:
1. Determine the depth of learning that is best for a particular task. Not all mathematical learning needs to involve complicated problems or projects. In fact, it’s generally best to keep the activities varied to maintain interest.
2. Determine how well you are able to coach your child in “going deep.” You may have never been given the opportunity to think past the second level yourself, and, even then, you may have struggled. Being aware of your own abilities will help you with the next item.
3. Choose the math program that offers the best support. If you function well at the deeper levels in math, you can supplement any curriculum by planning instruction and learning activities similar to the ones presented as examples. If you are not comfortable thinking this way, you may want to seek out programs that include the types of problems and activities that encourage deeper thinking.
As parents, we want to ensure that our children acquire basic math skills and are able to apply them in advanced study and everyday life.
If you can learn to look beyond the chaos, your family can survive homeschooling and realize the sweet return on your investment.
Go to any homeschooling website and you’ll probably find it—a photograph of a homeschooling family, parent and child smiling sweetly at each other, lost in the love of learning. If you’re a new mother with an infant sleeping peacefully nearby, you might immediately start superimposing the faces of you and your little angel onto the image as you dream of the future. If you’re a veteran homeschooler, however, you might find yourself trying to remember the last time your family looked even remotely like that. No matter where you are in the homeschooling journey, from just thinking about it to being deep in the trenches, it’s important to remember that homeschooling rarely resembles the photos on the websites. Homeschooling often involves mess: messy living spaces, messy schedules, and messy relationships.
I grew up as the oldest of seven children in a house with 2½ bedrooms and one bath. My father was a construction worker, and my mother stayed at home. With a tight budget, my mother hung onto everything, which made our little home feel even smaller. When I became an adult, I was determined that I was never going to have kids, and I was never going to have a home that was cluttered and chaotic. Of course, God knew better. I ended up having four children of my own, living in a city where private school was out of our price range and public school was out of the question. As we transitioned from day care into the brave new world of homeschooling, I suddenly realized that my children would now be around pretty much 24/7, which meant that they would rarely be out of the house long enough for me to make it presentable. It took more than a few tears, conflicts, and adjustments before I came to terms with mess of the homeschooling lifestyle. Here are the three biggest lessons that I learned as I worked through the process:
Focus on What’s Important
Perhaps you’ve seen this last stanza from Ruth Hulburt Hamilton’s famous poem, “Song for a Fifth Child”:
Oh, cleaning and scrubbing will wait till tomorrow,
But children grow up, as I’ve learned to my sorrow.
So quiet down, cobwebs. Dust, go to sleep.
I’m rocking my baby. Babies don’t keep.
The idea behind this poem is the same as the one behind our house rule: “People before things, and principles before property.” In our case, it might very well mean leaving a pile of unsorted laundry to read a story, trekking into the woods for some “real life” science, or rescheduling the school day to take a meal to a sick neighbor. The satisfaction of knowing you have done something purposeful and meaningful, perhaps even with eternal value, will help you realize that any mess or chaos left in the wake was well worth it.
Set Reasonable Expectations
At first I was going to entitle this section, “Lower your expectations,” but then I realized that the expectations you set will be based on what you deem to be important. For example, if teaching your child to be careful and conscientious is important, you will set a high expectation for any assignment that is turned in. However, having a spotless bathroom on a daily basis may be an expectation that needs to be lowered. As an example, it was important for me that my children have experience with all kinds of art, including paint and clay, but those activities could only be done on Friday afternoons and only within established parameters (such as covering the area with newspaper and wearing smocks). I knew that our sessions would be messy (and they were), but having realistic expectations for both myself and my children helped make it manageable.
Cultivate a Positive Attitude
There we were—watching the rain as it continued to fall for yet another day. So much for our fun vacation! It seemed like all I was doing was trying to keep the kids from going stir-crazy, the camper relatively mud-free, and myself from the brink of despair. I had taken a moment to tend to the baby when suddenly I heard squeals of laughter from outside the camper. I looked out to see my husband and children in their bathing suits, sliding and swimming in the mud and having the time of their lives. This was a deciding moment. I could continue off the cliff and fall headlong into the self-pity, anger, and frustration, or I could choose to enjoy the sight of my family determined to have fun despite the weather. I am thankful now to say that I chose the latter. Choosing to look on the sunny side—even to see the humor in the situation—can be a wonderful way to “weather” the mess and the chaos of life.
There is no way around it; life is messy, and homeschooling is life up close and personal. It is my hope that it won’t take you as long as it took me to accept this fact. Focus on what’s important, set reasonable expectations, cultivate a positive attitude, and embrace this wonderful mess called homeschooling.
Does Spelling You See teach Greek or Latin roots? Can it be applied to spelling? We answer these questions and more in this blog post.
If you’ve been teaching for any length of time, you’ve probably seen it—the “deer in the headlights” look when a child encounters a new word in a reading selection. Your first instinct is probably to suggest, “Sound it out,” which might be helpful for a word like graze or fleet; however, this strategy isn’t as helpful for an older student faced with a word like spectator or chronicle. Once students begin to encounter longer words, they need to acquire strategies other than “sounding out” to gain meaning from those words. These strategies often involve learning how to break words into parts, including Greek and Latin roots (such as the Latin root spect– in spectator and the Greek word chronos in chronicle). Studying these roots can help students not only learn to read new words but also how to spell them.
Root Study and Spelling You See
If root study is so helpful in learning how to spell, why doesn’t Spelling You See use this strategy in its program? The answer to this question comes from an understanding of the five stages of spelling development. During the majority of the elementary years, students are in the Skill Development stage of spelling. This is the stage in which vocabulary expands dramatically and incorporates more and more words that are not spelled phonetically. The only way that students are able to use the correct spellings of these words consistently is if the words are stored in visual memory. Spelling You See uses research-based strategies to help students accomplish this goal, which includes presenting commonly-used words in the context of an interesting passage.
Consider this example from Americana, a book from the curriculum at the Skill Development stage:
Katharine Bates took a train ride across the country. She saw many beautiful sights. In Colorado she went to the top of Pikes Peak. She was over a mile above the city below. She could see so far that the distant mountains looked purple. The beautiful view gave her great joy. Back in her hotel, she put her thoughts into a poem. It became the song “America, the Beautiful.” (Lesson 28)
You will notice that there are many commonly-used words in this passage that students at this level need to be able to spell, such as country, beautiful, mountain, purple, view, and thought. However, while the words country and distant do have Latin origins, there are no words with clear Latin or Greek roots that can be used as an aid to spelling. The reality is that Greek and Latin roots tend to appear in words at higher vocabulary levels and not in the text that most elementary students are expected to read. Therefore, teaching roots at this level is generally not helpful; students should be focusing instead on mastering the spellings of words they frequently read and write in their everyday experience.
Once students have mastered these spellings, it’s a natural progression to the Word Extension stage, which is covered in Spelling You See’s Modern Milestones. Here students study longer words, first identifying words they have already learned how to spell, either as a base word or as part of a compound word. Then they learn to identify and spell common prefixes and suffixes and how to add them correctly to base words to spell new words. It is only after students become comfortable adding to words they already know are they able to progress to adding to roots, which are not words in themselves. This task is accomplished in the Derivational Constancy stage of spelling, which most students cover in a traditional vocabulary program focusing on Greek and Latin roots and/or in their other studies, which will include more words containing these roots.
Applying Root Study
Some of you may ask, “What if my student is already learning Latin (or Greek)? Can’t we just apply it to spelling?” Before answering this question, I need to stress the difference between language acquisition and language study. If your goal is to have your student read, write, and speak Latin or Greek as he does English, you are focusing on language acquisition. When anyone is acquiring a new language, it generally takes several years to establish fluency. If your student has learned a classical language to this level of competence, it is perfectly appropriate (and even beneficial) to point out the similarities between the two languages as an aid to both reading and spelling. However, it is a different matter if your student is studying Greek or Latin vocabulary and grammar as an academic exercise (“book study”). In this case, it is better to wait to make the connection to English spelling until your student reaches the Derivational Constancy stage and has already mastered the spellings of basic words and the principles for adding affixes correctly.
Does learning Greek and Latin roots help a student with spelling in English? Absolutely! The key is to teach the roots in the correct developmental stage of spelling, after the student has mastered the prerequisite spelling skills. Teaching according to developmental level, as the Spelling You See program does, enables students to become competent spellers who are able to express themselves clearly and confidently in their written work.
Have you ever wondered why handwriting is so prevalent in Spelling You See, or if it works as a handwriting program? We’ll get into these questions, and more, in this blog post.
Spelling You See is not difficult, but it is different.
This is a statement we often make about our spelling program, and it’s easy to see why. As soon as you open the books, you are struck by the fact that there are no spelling lists and no tests, but there are lots and lots of lines for writing. In fact, the first two levels of the program (Listen and Write and Jack and Jill) contain a Guide to Handwriting, and specific references to handwriting are made in the Instructor’s Handbook. This often gives rise to several questions, such as:
• If this is a spelling program, why talk about handwriting?
• Does this mean I can use Spelling You See for my handwriting program, too?
• What if my child uses a different style?
• What if my child wants to write in cursive?
• How much should I emphasize handwriting as I guide my student through Spelling You See?
It might be helpful to think about it first as a tool; now think about the difference between learning how to use a tool and how to apply a tool. Consider the simple calculator as an example. The first time you picked up a calculator, you had to learn how to turn it on, what the different keys meant, how to clear entries, etc. Then, once you were comfortable with the tool, you were able to use it to balance your checkbook, calculate student grades, check answers to math problems when the answer key wasn’t handy, and so on. Handwriting should be considered in the same way. Spelling You See is not designed to teach actual letter formation—the “how to” of handwriting. There are many other programs on the market specifically for this purpose (or you may simply be choosing to do this on your own). Instead, Spelling You See is an application of handwriting—a situation in which students use the “tool” of handwriting to accomplish the task of learning how to spell.
So why do we even mention handwriting in Spelling You See? Simply put, there’s a lot of it in the program, and it can interfere with student’s ability to learn spelling if not executed efficiently. Knowing the four principles related to handwriting in Spelling You See will help you, as the parent, guide your student as he works through the program.
…helps the student focus on spelling. Automatic, correct spelling comes as words are imprinted on a student’s visual memory. If the brain is trying to remember how to form letters while also trying to learn spelling, obviously less brain power is going to spelling. Therefore, students who have already established handwriting patterns should write in the way they find the most comfortable. Note: this is the most important handwriting principle in Spelling You See. It should be as automatic as possible so that the brain can focus entirely on learning correct spelling.
…prevents exhaustion. In the first full paragraph of this blog post, I typed the letter e 50 times. If I were writing by hand, I would have created 50 strokes because I write the letter e with a single stroke. However, I have seen some children write the letter e using 2 or even 3 strokes. That means that, if they were to copy just the first paragraph, they would write 100 or 150 strokes to my 50. For young children, whose hand muscles are still developing, writing in this manner will soon cause the hand to tire. That is why Spelling You See includes a suggested Guide to Handwriting. If you have a student whose hand gives out before 10 minutes is up, or if you have a young child who is still learning the mechanics of handwriting, we recommend that he learn to write letters as shown in this guide.
…enhances memory. People often wonder why Spelling You See encourages manuscript over cursive. After all, isn’t cursive easier on the hand, and isn’t comfort the most important principle? Yes and yes. However, writing in manuscript gives two additional advantages. First, it is much closer to print, which we see in everyday reading. Second, because each letter in manuscript is formed separately, using a distinctive set of strokes, the physical action of writing the word creates a stronger impression on the brain and makes remembering the correct spelling more likely. Too many letters in cursive are formed in the same way (think e and l), and the flow between the letters doesn’t create as strong an impression on the brain as the hand is writing. If a student can write comfortably in manuscript, we recommend that it be used for spelling work.
…facilitates reading. This last principle really is a matter of common sense. In Spelling You See, the student needs to be able to read aloud what he’s written, and you need to be able to read his writing to see if he’s spelled correctly. As long as the student’s writing is legible, you don’t need to be concerned about perfect letter formation.
Handwriting is an important tool used in the Spelling You See program, but parents should remember that it’s just that—a tool. As you use Spelling You See, please don’t obsess over handwriting. Stay relaxed and engaged, have fun, and watch as your child develops spelling skill and confidence.
This blog post post will provide you with some guidance in determining how much and how often you should use math manipulatives and when it’s time to stop.
We here at Math-U-See are used to hearing it and seeing it on our social media posts. Generally the question goes something like this:
“My child can complete the worksheets when he’s using the blocks, but he can’t solve problems without them. Should I let him use the blocks on the tests? Can I move on to the next lesson? Has he mastered the material?”
Perhaps you’re in this situation yourself, or perhaps you’re concerned about your student becoming dependent on the blocks. Some parents approach the issue with the attitude of “when she’s ready, she’ll stop using the manipulatives.” There is an element of truth to this in that, once a student is fluent in solving problems, she often finds manipulatives to be tedious and time-consuming and “weans” herself on her own. The goal, then, is to help the student develop conceptual fluency so that she finds that manipulatives are no longer necessary.
Notice that the operative word is “conceptual.” Students who truly master math grasp the concepts, or the understanding, behind what they are doing. Using this operative definition of mastery, let’s look at the two basic ideas that a student must grasp in order to be able to use the Math-U-See integer blocks with understanding.
1. Each integer block represents a number of concrete objects (ex., the pink block represents three buttons).
2. Each integer block has its own identifying color. Brown is associated with the eight-block, purple is associated with the six-block, and so on.
To adults, these concepts seem so basic that it becomes tempting to skip them or cover them too quickly. However, it is essential that these understandings become automatic if the child is to experience success using the manipulatives to learn math. Here are some ways you can tell whether your student has mastered these fundamental concepts.
1. Place three small items in front of the student (pennies, buttons, paper clips, etc.). Ask him to find the block that represents this number of objects. While the student may need to stop and count the objects, he should immediately go to the pink 3-block. If there is any hesitation, or if he needs to count the “bumps” on the block, you need to spend more time with activities like this to help your child develop an intuitive understanding of the numbers the blocks represent.
2. Play any kind of game that associates the blocks with their colors. For example, you could place crayons of corresponding colors in front of the student and ask which block goes with each (ex., orange with 2, brown with 8). The goal is to develop an automatic association of the blocks with their colors, which will later help the child move away from the blocks altogether.
Again, the goal here, as with any concept in Math-U-See, is mastery. Don’t venture too much farther into the program until your child is able to identify the numerical value that each block represents and recall its color without any hesitation.
Suppose, however, that your student DOES understand what the blocks mean and is able to use them competently. The issue now is that she won’t STOP using them—in other words, she needs to use the blocks for every problem, even on tests.
Fading: Ending Manipulative Dependency
In the first part of this post, I discussed the importance of the student developing an intuitive, automatic understanding of the numbers that the blocks represent; in this part, I’ll discuss ways to help students build on that understanding so that they can move from using the blocks to straight computation.
First of all, it’s important to note that manipulatives are not meant to be a computational tool; their purpose is to serve as representations of a concept to help facilitate understanding of that concept. Therefore, once a student understands that the blocks represent numbers, she should be using them only as models. Consider the example of 2 + 3. In the Math-U-See program, the student learns to read the written numeral 2 (which she has associated with the orange two-bar), the written numeral 3 (which she has associated with the pink three-bar), and the addition sign, which indicates that the two bars are “smooshed” together. She uses this process to complete several problems in the workbook; then, once it appears that she understands the concept, it’s time for her to “teach it back” to you. What should the “teach back” process look like for this particular problem? In other words, how does the student’s response show mastery of the concept?
Consider these sample student responses:
STUDENT 1 – “First you take an orange block. Then you take a pink block. Then you put them together. Then you find the block that is just as long as the two blocks together. The answer is five.”
STUDENT 2 – “First I see a 2. That means I need an orange block because it stands for 2. Then I take a pink block for the 3. The plus sign means adding. Adding means you put things together, so I ‘smoosh’ the blocks together. I want to find out how many I have now, so I look for a block that’s the same. The five block is the same as the two and the three together, so 2 plus 3 equals 5.”
Do you see a difference in the two responses? The first student has simply described a process. While the student may understand what addition means, there is nothing in his answer to show that he isn’t just parroting an action that he has seen demonstrated. The second student, on the other hand, used words like “means” and “stands for”, which indicates a grasp of the concepts underlying the physical representations of number. If necessary, you may need to ask your student additional questions, such as “Why did you do that?” or “What does that mean?”, in order to probe the depth of his understanding. If the student cannot answer your questions, then more guided practice with the manipulatives will be necessary.
It may very well be, however, that your student shows complete understanding of the concept but has become dependent on the manipulatives to perform computations. There is one additional step that she may need to give her the confidence to move on to independent work.
When a student uses manipulatives repeatedly, whether she is aware of it or not, she begins to form a mental picture of the process that is taking place. In the previous example, as the student continually models 2 + 3, she will eventually “see” the two-block and the three-block “smooshing” together in her mind. This is what enables her to be able to perform the addition of 2 and 3 without the blocks. Over time, as the addition fact 2 + 3 = 5 moves into long-term memory and becomes automatic, the mental picture will fade. This process has given rise to the term “concreteness fading”, which simply refers to an educational technique that helps students move from physical manipulatives to pictures to abstract computations.
Here’s how the technique works. The next time you pull out the manipulatives for a math lesson, pull out a set of crayons or colored pencils, too. After your child builds the problem, have him draw a picture of the blocks he used. Continue doing this until your child is able to draw the picture INSTEAD of building with the blocks. Then, after your child has been drawing pictures for a while, put the crayons aside. See if your child can look at the problem, close his eyes, and picture the blocks in his mind. (If necessary, he can even tell you out loud what he sees in his head.) It may take a little while, but eventually your child will not need to close his eyes to picture the problem; he will automatically “see” the blocks in his mind and be able to solve problems without any additional support.
There is no question that manipulatives are a powerful tool for visualizing and modeling mathematical concepts. As you guide your student with the Math-U-See manipulatives, your child will develop a strong understanding of the fundamentals of math and be able to perform computations confidently and accurately. In other words, he will have moved from manipulatives to mastery.